arrived in Russia around 1820, and manufacturing began soon
afterwards in the 1830's in Tulle. During this time, accordionists
usually played traditional Russian folk tunes on the diatonic
accordion. By the end of the 19th century there were brands
like Saratova, Viatica, Kasimov and Eleyski being manufactured.
In 1870 Beloborodov made the first Russian 2 row chromatic
accordion and in 1888 he organised an accordion orchestra.
Tchaikovsky used 4 accordions in his "Second Suite for
Symphonic Orchestra", and in 1890 Sterligov made a 3
row chromatic accordion called "Reform". Accordionists
began playing more variety music, and two of the more popular
performers of this time were Nevski and Beloborodov.
Khegstrem organised the "First Russian Society of Harmonica
Lovers". In 1907 Sterligov invented the first free bass
chromatic accordion (and called it the "Bayan",
which is now the Russian name for any chromatic accordion),
enabling performers to play difficult classical music. An
example of this was when Pavel Stirgin played "2nd Hungary
Rhapsody" (Liszt) and Alexander Kuznetsov played "Hungary
Dance No 4" (Brahms). After the Revolution of 1917 accordionists
played a lot of songs about the civil war and the revolution.
1820 to 1926 better quality accordions gradually appeared
and performers were now playing music arranged for the accordion.
From 1926 to 1945 some accordionists began earning a living
from teaching, greatly improving the general playing standards.
in 1926 and in Moscow in 1927, schools and universities were
set up for the purpose of teaching the accordion professionally.
Around this time a lot of schools and organisations were also
beginning to emerge, creating competitions and concert events.
In the late 1920's the first accordion newspaper appeared,
called "For Harmonica". In 1929 Sterligov manufactured
an instrument with the free-base system.
1930's the chromatic accordion was being widely used by the
top concert artists. After a recital by Gvozdev in St.Petersburg,
in 1935, the chromatic accordion took off as a solo instrument.
Composers began writing music especially for solo accordion,
with one of the most famous pieces from this time being "Concerto
for Bayan and Orchestra" (Rozhkov & Sotnikov).
in St. Petersburg "Red Guerilla" began to manufacturer
accordions. In 1939 the first All-Union competition was held.
The first three place-getters in this were I.Panitsky(1st),
N.Rizol (2nd) and M.Beletskaya (3rd).
some of the most popular performers in this period were Y.Orlansky-Titarenko,
I.Gladkov, M.Makarov, A.Kuznetsov, Y.Popkov, I.Panitsky, I.Malinin
1945, solo performers have become an important part in the
development of the accordion throughout Russia. After World
War II the number of recitals increased. Concert programmes
included arrangements of classical music by composers such
as Borodin, Moussorgsky, Tchaikovsky, Stravinsky and Prokophiev.
was written especially for solo accordion by composers like
Zolotariev, Repnikov, Gubaidulina and Kusyakov. Famous performers
and teachers included people such as M.Gelis, N.Rizol, V.Gorokhov,
A.Onegin, P.Gvozdev and N. Chaykin who taught and encouraged
a new generation of musicians including Y.Kazakov, A.Belyaev,
E. Mitchenko, V. Galkin, Y. Vostrelov, A. Sklyarov, F. Lips